An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor’s magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor’s shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates with a reversed flow of power, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Electric motors may be classified by considerations such as power source type, internal construction, application and type of motion output. In addition to AC versus DC types, motors may be brushed or brushless, may be of various phase (see single-phasetwo-phase, or three-phase), and may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled. General-purpose motors with standard dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use. The largest electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors are found in industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools and disk drives. Small motors may be found in electric watches. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors, electric motors can be used in reverse as generators to recover energy that might otherwise be lost as heat and friction.

Electric motors produce linear or rotary force (torque) intended to propel some external mechanism, such as a fan or an elevator. An electric motor is generally designed for continuous rotation, or for linear movement over a significant distance compared to its size. Magnetic solenoids are also transducers that convert electrical power to mechanical motion, but can produce motion over only a limited distance.

Electric motors are much more efficient than the other prime mover used in industry and transportation, the internal combustion engine (ICE); electric motors are typically over 95% efficient while ICEs are well below 50%. They are also lightweight, physically smaller, are mechanically simpler and cheaper to build, can provide instant and consistent torque at any speed, can run on electricity generated by renewable sources and do not exhaust carbon into the atmosphere. For these reasons electric motors are replacing internal combustion in transportation and industry, although their use in vehicles is currently limited by the high cost and weight of batteries that can give sufficient range between charges.

An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.[1][2]Heat engines convert heat into work via various thermodynamic processes. The internal combustion engine is perhaps the most common example of a heat engine, in which heat from the combustion of a fuel causes rapid pressurisation of the gaseous combustion products in the combustion chamber, causing them to expand and drive a piston, which turns a crankshaftElectric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and ultimately motion.

The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapultstrebuchets and battering rams, were called siege engines, and knowledge of how to construct them was often treated as a military secret. The word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps. In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was merely a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses.[3]

In modern usage, the term engine typically describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force (usually in the form of thrust). Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines.[4] Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets.

When the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was initially used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion.

combustion engine

electric engine

history can be as simple as knowing your family tree and being proud of your part in history no one is replaceable or irrelevant because there could be a ripple down effect.

my family tree is interesting for the reason of mostly we had soldiers in our family and a drover and horse dealer .. Travelled from england to jersey islands and orguile castle all the way down to myself

Peoples rights to be heard and their cultural backgrounds to be seen as relevant.

Photo by Artem Beliaikin on Pexels.com

The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass[12] and also commonly referred to as Custer’s Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which resulted in the defeat of U.S. forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It took place on June 25–26, 1876, along the Little Bighorn River in the Crow Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana Territory.[13]

The fight was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, who were led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall, and had been inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake). The U.S. 7th Cavalry, a force of 700 men, suffered a major defeat while commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer (formerly a brevetted major general during the American Civil War). Five of the 7th Cavalry’s twelve companies were annihilated and Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother-in-law. The total U.S. casualty count included 268 dead and 55 severely wounded (six died later from their wounds),[14]:244 including four Crow Indian scouts and at least two Arikara Indian scouts.

Rollo was born in the mid-9th century; his place of birth is almost definitely located in the region of Scandinavia, although it is uncertain whether he is Danish or Norwegian. The earliest well-attested historical event associated with Rollo is his part in leading the Vikings who besieged Paris in 885–886 but were fended off by Odo of Fra Medieval sources contradict each other regarding whether Rollo’s family was Norwegian or Danish in origin. In part, “Vikings”, “Northmen”, “Swedes”, “Danes”, “Norwegians” and so on (in the Medieval Latin texts Dani vel Nortmanni means ‘Danes or Northmen’). A biography of Rollo, written by the cleric Dudo of Saint-Quentin in the late 10th century, claimed that Rollo was from Denmark (“Dacia”). One of Rollo’s great-grandsons and a contemporary of Dudo was known as Robert the Dane. However, Dudo’s Historia Normannorum  was commissioned by Rollo’s grandson, Richard I of Normandy and – while Dudo likely had access to family members and/or other people with a living memory of Rollo – this fact must be weighed against the text’s potential biases, as an official biography. According to Dudo, an unnamed king of Denmark was antagonistic to Rollo’s family, including his father – an unnamed Danish nobleman – and Rollo’s brother Gurim. Following the death of their father, Gurim was killed and Rollo was forced to leave Denmark. Dudo appears to have been the main source for William of Jumièges (after 1066) and Orderic Vitalis (early 12th century), although both include additional details. A Norwegian background for Rollo was first explicitly claimed by Goffredo Malaterra (Geoffrey Malaterra), an 11th-century Benedictine monk and historian, who wrote: “Rollo sailed boldly from Norway with his fleet to the Christian coast.” Likewise, the 12th-century English historian William of Malmesbury stated that Rollo was “born of noble lineage among the Norwegians”.A chronicler named Benoît (probably Benoît de Sainte-More) wrote in the mid-12th-century Chronique des ducs de Normandie that Rollo had been born in a town named “Fasge”. This has since been variously interpreted as referring to Faxe, in Sjælland (Denmark), Fauske, in Sykkulven (Norway), or perhaps a more obscure settlement that has since been abandoned or renamed. Benoît also repeated the claim that Rollo had been persecuted by a local ruler and had fled from there to “Scanza island”, by which Benoît probably means Scania (Swedish Skåne). While Faxe was physically much closer to Scania, the mountainous scenery of “Fasge”, described by Benoît, would seem to be more like Fauske.

Count of Rouen
SuccessorWilliam Longsword
Bornc. 846/860[1][2][3]
Diedc.930 (aged 69–70)
BurialRouen Cathedral
SpousePoppa of BayeuxGisela of France (possibly)
William LongswordGerloc
HouseNormandy (founder)
ReligionNorse paganismlater (pre-SchismRoman Catholicism

The prince of Dubai charming and gracious . Hamdan was appointed as the Chairman of the Dubai executive council in September 2006. On 1 February 2008, he was appointed Crown Prince of Dubai, while his brother Sheikh Maktoum bin Mohammed Al Maktoum acceded to deputy ruler of Dubai. As the new hereditary prince, Fazza appointed new key personnel and financial advisors such as John Calverly, a global economist, as well as a hedge fund tycoon, James T Naeem, while Fazza himself became head of HN Capital LLP. He is the head of the Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Establishment for young entrepreneurs, and sits on the Dubai sports council and the Dubai autism centre.

He was part of the Dubai World Expo 2020 delegation when Dubai was awarded the rights to host the event.[13] He went to the top floor of the Burj Khalifa to wave the UAE flag a few days after the World Expo 2020 win.[14] He is the founder of the Hamdan International Photography Award, which was launched in 2011.

Personal life

The Crown Prince’s Instagram account has more than 12 million followers, as of July 2021. He posts pictures that showcase his hobbies, which include animals, poetry, sports, photography and adventures.[16]

Hamdan Al Maktoum is a licensed equestriansky diver and scuba diver. He dives in Fujairah.[7] He is known for his romantic and patriotic poems in Arabic. He publishes his poems under the name Fazza (فزاع). He rides for Godolphin stables. He has attended Royal Ascot.

Sheikh Hamdan won a gold medal at the Alltech FEI World Equestrian Games™ 2014 in Normandy (FRA), team gold in 2012 and a bronze medal in 2010. He led a team of five UAE riders at Championships in Samorín on 17 September 2016.[18][19]

On 15 May 2019, Hamdan married his cousin, Sheikha Shaikha bint Saeed bin Thani Al Maktoum. On the same day, his brothers, Maktoum and Ahmad, also got married. On 6 June 2019, he and his brothers celebrated the royal weddings together at the Dubai World Trade Center. On 21 May 2021, it was announced that Sheikh Hamdan had welcomed twins, a son named Rashid and a daughter named Shaikha.


Prince Hamdan is married to his cousin and possibly to a second wife who is the mother of his twins but this is my speculation……


Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is serving as the current President of Russia since 2012, previously being in the office from 1999 until 2008. He was also prime minister from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012. As of 2021, Putin is the second-longest serving European president, after Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus.

york henry bear The one who like honey

Putin was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) and studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin worked as a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, before resigning in 1991 to begin a political career in Saint Petersburg. He later moved to Moscow in 1996 to join the administration of President Boris Yeltsin. He briefly served as Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB) and Secretary of the Security Council, before being appointed as prime minister in August 1999. After the resignation of Yeltsin, Putin became acting president, and less than four months later was elected outright to his first term as president and was reelected in 2004. As he was then constitutionally limited to two consecutive terms as president, Putin chose to become the prime minister again from 2008 to 2012, and was reelected as president in 2012, and again in 2018. In April 2021, he signed into law a constitutional change that would allow him to run for reelection twice more, potentially extending his presidency to 2036. During his first tenure as president, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, with GDP measured by purchasing power increasing by 72%, real incomes increased by a factor of 2.5, real wages more than tripled; unemployment and poverty more than halved and the Russians’ self-assessed life satisfaction rose significantly.

Vladimir Putin (2018-03-01) 03 (cropped).jpg

An interesting writer would be tim marshal he talks about the geography of geo-politics in his book PRISONERS OF GEOGRAPHY : eg
‘ VLADIMIR PUTIN SAYS HE IS A RELIGIOUS MAN, A GREAT supporter of the Russian Orthodox Church. If so, he may well go to bed each night, say his prayers and ask God: ‘Why didn’t you put some mountains in Ukraine?’ If God had built mountains in Ukraine, then the great expanse of flatland that is the North European Plain would not be such encouraging territory from which to attack Russia repeatedly. As it is, Putin has no
choice: he must at least attempt to control the flatlands to the west. So it
is with all nations, big or small. The landscape imprisons their leaders,
giving them fewer choices and less room to manoeuvre than you might
think. This was true of the Athenian Empire, the Persians, the
Babylonians and before; it was true of every leader seeking high ground
from which to protect their tribe.
The land on which we live has always shaped us. Russia has suffer attacks from the otterman empire, the french, the german’s twice so it is a natural expectation that they will be suspicious of all and any other peoples. Broadly speaking, geopolitics looks at the ways in which
international affairs can be understood through geographical factors; not
just the physical landscape – the natural barriers of mountains or
connections of river networks, for example – but also climate,
demographics, cultural regions and access to natural resources. Factors
such as these can have an important impact on many different aspects of
our civilisation, from political and military strategy to human social
development, including language, trade and religion.
The physical realities that underpin national and international
politics are too often disregarded both in writing about history and in
contemporary reporting of world affairs. Geography is clearly a
fundamental part of the ‘why’ as well as the ‘what’. It might not be the
determining factor, but it is certainly the most overlooked. Take, for
example, China and India: two massive countries with huge populations
that share a very long border but are not politically or culturally aligned.
It wouldn’t be surprising if these two giants had fought each other in
several wars, but in fact, apart from one month-long battle in 1962, they
never have. Why? Because between them is the highest mountain range
in the world, and it is practically impossible to advance large military
columns through or over the Himalayas. As technology becomes more
sophisticated, of course, ways are emerging of overcoming this obstacle,
but the physical barrier remains a deterrent, and so both countries focus
their foreign policy on other regions while keeping a wary eye on each
Individual leaders, ideas, technology and other factors all play a rolein shaping events, but they are temporary. Each new generation will still
face the physical obstructions created by the Hindu Kush and the
Himalayas; the challenges created by the rainy season; and the
disadvantages of limited access to natural minerals or food sources.
I first became interested in this subject when covering the wars in the
Balkans in the 1990s. I watched close at hand as the leaders of various
peoples, be they Serbian, Croat or Bosniak, deliberately reminded their
‘tribes’ of the ancient divisions and, yes, ancient suspicions in a region
crowded with diversity. Once they had pulled the peoples apart, it didn’t
take much to then push them against each other.
The River Ibar in Kosovo is a prime example. Ottoman rule over
Serbia was cemented by the Battle of Kosovo Polje in 1389, fought near
where the Ibar flows through the city of Mitrovica. Over the following
centuries the Serb population began to withdraw behind the Ibar as
Muslim Albanians gradually descended from the mountainous Malesija
region into Kosovo, where they became a majority by the mid eighteenth
Fast-forward to the twentieth century and there was still a clear
ethnic/religious division roughly marked by the river. Then in 1999,
battered by NATO from the air and the Kosovo Liberation Army on the
ground, the Yugoslav (Serbian) military retreated across the Ibar, quickly
followed by most of the remaining Serb population. The river became
the de facto border of what some countries now recognise as the
independent state of Kosovo.
Mitrovica was also where the advancing NATO ground forces came to
a halt. During the three-month war there had been veiled threats that
NATO intended to invade all of Serbia. In truth, the restraints of both
geography and politics meant the NATO leaders never really had that
option. Hungary had made it clear that it would not allow an invasionfrom its territory, as it feared reprisals against the 350,000 ethnic
Hungarians in northern Serbia. The alternative was an invasion from the
south, which would have got them to the Ibar in double-quick time; but
NATO would then have faced the mountains above them.
I was working with a team of Serbs in Belgrade at the time and asked
what would happen if NATO came: ‘We will put our cameras down, Tim,
and pick up guns,’ was the response. They were liberal Serbs, good
friends of mine and opposed to their government, but they still pulled
out the maps and showed me where the Serbs would defend their
territory in the mountains, and where NATO would grind to a halt. It
was some relief to be given a geography lesson in why NATO’s choices
were more limited than the Brussels PR machine made public.
An understanding of how crucial the physical landscape was in
reporting news in the Balkans stood me in good stead in the years which
followed. For example, in 2001, a few weeks after 9/11, I saw a
demonstration of how, even with today’s modern technology, climate
still dictates the military possibilities of even the world’s most powerful
armies. I was in northern Afghanistan, having crossed the border river
from Tajikistan on a raft, in order to link up with the Northern Alliance
(NA) troops who were fighting the Taliban.
The American fighter jets and bombers were already overhead,
pounding Taliban and Al Qaeda positions on the cold, dusty plains and
hills east of Mazar-e-Sharif in order to pave the way for the advance on
Kabul. After a few weeks it was obvious that the NA were gearing up to
move south. And then the world changed colour.
The most intense sandstorm I have ever experienced blew in, turning
everything a mustard-yellow colour. Even the air around us seemed to
be this hue, thick as it was with sand particles. For thirty-six hours
nothing moved except the sand. At the height of the storm you couldn’tsee more than a few yards ahead of you, and the only thing clear was
that the advance would have to wait for the weather.
The Americans’ satellite technology, at the cutting edge of science,
was helpless, blind in the face of the climate of this wild land. Everyone,
from President Bush and the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the NA troops on the
ground, just had to wait. Then it rained, and the sand that had settled on
everything and everyone turned into mud. The rain came down so hard
that the baked-mud huts we were living in looked as if they were
melting. Again it was clear that the move south was on hold until
geography finished having its say. The rules of geography, which
Hannibal, Sun Tzu and Alexander the Great all knew, still apply to
today’s leaders.
More recently, in 2012, I was given another lesson in geostrategy: as
Syria descended into full-blown civil war, I was standing on a Syrian
hilltop, overlooking a valley south of the city of Hama, and saw a hamlet
burning in the distance. Syrian friends pointed out a much larger village
about a mile away, from where they said the attack had come. They then
explained that if one side could push enough people from the other
faction out of the valley, then the valley could be joined onto other land
that led to the country’s only motorway, and as such would be useful in
carving out a piece of contiguous viable territory which one day could
be used to create a mini-statelet if Syria could not be put back together
again. Where before I saw only a burning hamlet, I could now see its
strategic importance and understand how political realities are shaped
by the most basic physical realities.
Geopolitics affects every country, whether at war, as in the examples
above, or at peace.


Technology is changing the world and making geography more accessable leading to more conflict but an interesting aspect to consider when talking geo politics

Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on Pexels.com

1901 Federation of Australian states /1948-1975; 2 Million immigrants cam from european countries and britain to settle. Australian Aboriginals have the oldest known culture on earth 50.000 Year History . Their dream time stories and the creation story of the rainbow snake is particularly wonderful. The Dutch discovered Australia in 1606 26 FEBUARY . Navigator Willem janszoon set foot on australian soil near weipa cape york. He charted 300 KIL of coastline. Willem Janszoon (Willem Jansz) was born around 1570, but nothing is known of his early life nor of his parents. Janszoon is first recorded as entering into the service of the Oude compagnie, one of the predecessors of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), in 1598 as a mate aboard the Hollandia, part of the second fleet under Jacob Cornelisz. van Neck, dispatched by the Dutch to the Dutch East Indies. On 5 May 1601, he again sailed for the East Indies as master of the Lam, one of three ships in the fleet of Joris van Spilbergen.Janszoon sailed from the Netherlands for the East Indies for the third time on 18 December 1603, as captain of the Duyfken (or Duijfken, meaning “Little Dove”), one of twelve ships of the great fleet of Steven van der Hagen.[5] When the other ships left Java, Janszoon was sent to search for other outlets of trade, particularly in “the great land of New Guinea and other East and Southlands”.



Abel Tasman - Cuyp (cropped).jpg

The First Fleet comprised the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England on 13 May 1787 to New South Wales, the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The First Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convictsmarinesseamencivil officers and free people (accounts differ on the numbers), and a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed south-west to Rio de Janeiro, then east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay (Australia), arriving over the period of 18–20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival. During the period 25–26 January 1788 the fleet moved from Botany Bay to present-day Sydney.

CASTLES were originally and most importantly family homes of the wealthy king lord or leader which gave safety from attack. castles gave protection to peoples for centuries castles have dominated the lands and countries across the world. positions such as hills to give added strength and near rivers for water or where attackers would find difficult terrain.. All strategies were for defence and power the first built were europe before 950 as a result of raids by other villages so the castle allowed safety for a whole people.1066 willian duke of normandy invaded england claimed the crown and wanting to show the saxons who was boss he set to build some of the finest castles norman motte and bailey castles sprang up all over england. in fact over 20 years 50 castles were built inially timber later to be stone, castles often had a gate house another castle to watch the entrance. the gate house castles now are looked after by families or the national trust. : little book of castles by leslie simms

Aramaic language ,semetic language of northern central or north western group that was originally spoken by the ancient middle eastern people Aramaeans 11th century. It was most closely related to hebrew ,syriac phonenician and was written in a script derived from the phoenician alphabet.


1692 port royal jamaica the wildest pirate den was washed away by a tidal wave which began because of a earthquake 2/3 of the place was dead within moments…Many said it was Gods wrath and well deserved.

The days when men worked the sails and imagine the heavy seas on board those wooden ships how brave the men where. I have been reading of those times and cant stop thinking of those open seas.The drama the adventure the complete daring do.

Pirate ships worked out of the Caribbean and Jamaice as a shipping lane brought the trade ships in this direction.

Barques, Brigs, Brigantines, battleships,Carravels Carracks,Clippers,Cutters,Frigates Galleons,Sloops,Schooners and Pinnacles.

Frigate is 6 cannon two mask that is 2x size bigger than the sloop but smaller than the galleon.

Galleon two mask with 20 cannons and 140 crew not as fast as a frigate but more intimidating,not as manaevourable as a frigate or a sloop but more fire power

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i am me and that is all i can be.